of each question will be formatted to answer each
of the goal statements.
and when does the IMPROVE data base show high OC/EC ratios that
might indicate large contributions of secondary organic aerosol
to light extinction?
presenter: Bill Malm, National Parks Service
organic particles should be included in the definition of secondary
organic aerosol? Condensation
of hot exhaust? Condensation
of vapors on particles in the atmosphere?
Equilibrium changes for volatile particles?
Organic particle reactions with inorganic gases?
non-technical terms, what are the chemical mechanisms that create
secondary organic aerosols, what are their precursors, what are
the environmental conditions needed to create and sustain particles,
and what are the organic substances in the particles?
gas and particle end-products can best distinguish secondary organic
aerosol from primary organic particles at receptor locations?
How stable are these components and how consistent are
their ratios to other components in the secondary organic aerosol
are the size, composition, and hygroscopic properties of secondary
organic particles that are most likely to affect light extinction.
Which end-products and formation mechanisms are likely
to cause the largest and smallest effects on regional haze?
Lynn Hildemann, Stanford University
are the major sources of precursors for secondary organic aerosols? What are the types of vegetation, vehicle exhaust, and burning
and under what conditions?
current sampling and measurement technologies are available to
measure these marker components?
How can these be practically applied at remote locations
in pristine environments?
Barbara Zielinska, Desert Research Institute
Only been able to quantify 10 – 20 percent. Secondary, because
polar in nature and are not easily measured. Methods are primitive.
Question is getting practicality, so how are we going to do
this from remote areas. Artifacts questions is an additional
problem. Light itself scatters much of the stuff in the atmosphere.
efforts are needed to prove new technologies to implement measurements?
discussion (Tim Richard, lead): Everyone needs to participate
in jotting down basic things we need to do and how to do them.
are the essential elements of a pilot study to quantify the fraction
or organic carbon that is of secondary organic origin and to determine
the sources of its precursors?
discussion (John Watson, lead): What
can we pursue in next few years? Everyone needs to participate